Sunday, March 29, 2020

Wilderness Essays - Animal Welfare, Zoo, Circus,

Wilderness Ethics Wildlife can be found all over the world. Animals come in all shapes and sizes and some still haven't even been accounted for. Animals were on this planet long before man, but they may not be here when man leaves. The animals' downfall results from the extensive studying, exploitation, and the destruction of their habitats, which should be against the law. There is a lot of information that can still be learned about certain species of animals. This information is good, only if it furthers human knowledge and the animal's well being. Studies done on animals involve clinical research. Taking an animal out of the wild simply to research it for common knowledge is unnecessary. Information on any animal can be gained by observation of the animal in its own natural habitat. Altering the behavior of animals is a different form of "injustice." The best example of the behavioral alteration is the circus. Under the big top of the circus, wild animals are taught to do tricks upon command. The audience sees obediently trained animals; but cannot see the process that it takes to tame those wild animals. The wild animals have a home in the circus until they lose their ability to perform. When the animals lose their ability to perform, they also lose their ability to fend for themselves in the wild. Therefore once their career in the circus is over, they must remain in captivity for the rest of their lives. Zoos are another business that profits at the expense of animals. Wild animals are hunted down and purposely taken from their habitat only to be put in cages. Over the years, zoos have become nicer and can accommodate a large number of species, but they are not the best home for animals. A life behind iron bars cannot compare to the life the animals would have running or flying free in the wild. The zoos' only justification is that the animals are taken care of well. Animals must be treated better, and their environments need to be saved if they are going to survive. Studying animals has a few benefits; but when the research is over, the animals are no better off. Despite the fact that zoos and the circus do more harm than good for the animals, they both will probably be around for along time. Therefore humans must learn to coexist with animal species that inhabited this planet long before man arrived.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

QACA and Qatar Charities Essays

QACA and Qatar Charities Essays QACA and Qatar Charities Essay QACA and Qatar Charities Essay 1.4 Challenges Faced by QACA between 2004 and 2009 Despite the many gains that QACA achieved between 2004 and 2009, it had to overcome many challenges. First, the authority employed a small staff (less than 60 employees). Due to the small size of its workforce, the authority outsourced auditing services to third party entities such as PriceWaterhouse Coopers. Outsourcing of services became a major bone of contention between the authority and Islamic charities in Qatar. Some of the charities claim that the contracted third party auditors were unreliable and not objective, and that they could disclose confidential information to unauthorized parties. The charitable groups also complained that the routine audits conducted by the contracted auditors at the behest of QACA lacked clear terms of reference because the charities were not getting reports after the audits. Concern were also raised that the audit cycle was taking too long, which was too costly to the charities. The charities alleged that the contracted third parties were deliber ately taking too long to complete the audit process so as to earn more money. These claims were refuted by QACA, but severely dented the organizations image in the country. Another issue of concern related to information exchange between QACA and the various charities and state agencies operating in Qatar. Immediately QACA was formed, it embarked on developing a system of communication network through which it could facilitate exchange of information with stakeholders. The authority could also use the communication system to electronically monitor each charitable groups financial processes. Such a communication system was never implemented because the charitable sector felt that the system could violate the privacy and confidentiality of charities. Some charities expressed fears that financial information passed to QACA through the system could end up in the hands of the competitors. Due to these reservations, the communication system, though well intended, was never implemented. This severed communication between QACA on one hand, and Islamic charities and other stakeholders on the other (Jonathan, 2003). Another challenge faced by QACA was the strong opposition from Qatar international charities which complained that the authority was biased because it played a dual role as a government regulator and as a charitable organization. In fact, part of QACAs mandate was to provide charitable aid and humanitarian assistance. Accordingly, the authority was always involved in several instances of aid delivery especially during catastrophic disasters and in crisis hit areas. For example, it provided aid to Indonesia after the deadly tsunami of 2004. The authority also provided aid to Pakistan and China following a series of catastrophes. Other charity groups felt that QACAs duality of roles created conflict of interest and exacerbated a state of competition between QACA (as a regulator) and the charities. This led to constrained relationships, making it difficult for QACA to execute its mandate effectively. 1.5 Dissolution of QACA Qaca was disbanded in 2009 following a decision by the government to restructure state institutions and ministries. In the restructuring process, a number of small government agencies were merged into ministries. Resultantly, the activities of QACA were taken over by the Ministry of Social Affairs. During the five year period when the Qatar Authority on Charitable Activities existed, it achieved many successes, setting precedence for future oversight and control of the charity sector. In its oversight roles, the authority found no evidence that Qatari charities or their foreign partners were involved in any illegal activities such a terror financing or money laundering. This gave the Qatari charity sector a clean bill of health, making Qatar one of the few countries in the Middle East with a well managed, transparent and efficient charity sector. Although QACA has long been disbanded, the government continues to regulate and monitor the charity sector with the aim of ensuring that ch aritable funds are used to make the greatest impact and that they are not diverted to criminal activities. As could be expected, the dissolution of QACA caused an immediate and long-lasting impact on the charity sector. Some charities felt that the dissolution was a sign of fragmentation in the government administration of public state agencies. Some feared that although the dissolution was not targeted exclusively at QACA, it could cause the charity sector to be regulated more stringently. Until the time of its dissolution, QACA had been considered the pioneer of a consultative framework for government coordination of the non-governmental sector. As such, some stakeholders felt the amalgamation of the activities of QACA with those of the ministry to be a wrong step taken by the government at a time when governments in other parts of the world were doing the opposite.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Bill and Bentham Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Bill and Bentham - Essay Example of imprisoning the murderer and permitting him to live may result in more killings; therefore, the death penalty is considerable and appropriate for killers. The utilitarian theory does not support eye for an eye in the sense that, if a man kills another, he should also be killed. The death penalty here deters any other criminal from committing the same crime or the occurrence of a similar crime. In this case, death penalty takes someone’s life and would prevent him or her from taking more lives; thus, providing the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism holds that the best course of an action is that which maximizes happiness and reduce suffering (Bentham 67). The moral worth of an action, according to this theory is only determined by its result. Any action intended to control the population for the purpose of inflicting happiness and comfort to the remaining people would be considered ethical, according to the utilitarianism. If the action prevents suffering for people, any action can be taken to prevent high population growth and make people glad to live. However, they believe that population control is vital for improving the stipulation of the working class so that they may enjoy outcomes of capital accumulation and technological progress. The multiplication of jollies with respect to the growth in population would not inflict any immorality provided that everybody is glad about his/her live and that no suffering is encountered as a result of unemployment caused by overpopulation. According to the utilitarianism, it is illogical and unreasonable to eliminate from the end any pleasure and feeling of any sentient being. They argue that animal rights should be granted according to the level of a creature’s self awareness without considering their species. However, if this would be strictly observed, our diets would be affected as people would not want to kill animals for meat. Utilitarianism suggests that it is easy for human

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Orginators of socialst thought and action Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Orginators of socialst thought and action - Essay Example Socialist was predominantly striking for Jews worried to leave Ghetto behind them and who, frustrated with the slow advancement of 19th- century liberalism, were eager to embrace a different worldwide faith. In France some considered the emancipation of the Jews as being one of the preconditions for the freedom of humankind. They alleged that Jewish monotheism foreshadowed the forthcoming harmony of mankind and their followers incorporated many French Jews. Socialism began in Russia later than Western Europe, in the next half of the 19th century. Following the death of Nicholas I and the accession of Alexander II led to the emancipation of the serfs and reduction of the repressive regime. Jewish became less secluded from broad stream of Russian communal life. Lots of Jewish socialist came from conventional homes and were slanted by the writing of Russian philosophers, whose effort they read at schools (Silberner, 36). Jews largely favored integration, since they regarded Judaism as outdated and thought that Jewish liberation would come about in the course of the liberalization of Russian citizens with whom the Jews should incorporate. Thus, most of the early Jewish socialist regarded the Russian socialism as more important than Jewish emancipation (Silberner, 44). Jews chose to join the revolutionaries and go to the people. A number of Jewish socialists transformed to Christianity to ease their actions amongst the public, while Jewish women socialist became estranged from Judaism by marriage to non-Jewish revolutionaries. The establishment of socialist regimes in European countries led to the repression of socialist parties and thus brought to an end the lengthy part of Jewish contribution in the fight for democratic socialist ideas in Russia (Silberner,

Monday, January 27, 2020

Technological Change And Manufacturing Process Innovation Business Essay

Technological Change And Manufacturing Process Innovation Business Essay Due to market research and marketing analysis about what consumer needs or wants, company has to develop new product and services or improve them with the creation of new idea, design or technology to satisfy consumer. Also to compete with other competitors to be first to introduce one new product, industry needs to constant innovation. For example in 2010, because of low barriers to entry to New Zealand banking market, the banking industrys initiative to innovate their products and services such as make easier for customers to switch banks and competitive interest rates and it leads to high customer satisfaction ratings and increase in profits. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/business/news/article.cfm?c_id=3objectid=10845099 Competition in an industry is always affected by rivals racing to be first to introduce one new product or product enhancement after another Product innovation is the development of new products, changes in design of established products, or use of new materials or components in the manufacture of established products. Thus product innovation can be divided into two categories of innovation: development of new products, and improvement of existing products. New product development describes the complete process of bringing a new product or service to market. There are two parallel paths involved in the process: one involves the idea generation, product design and detail engineering the other involves market research and marketing analysis. Improvement of existing products includes, but is not limited to, improvements in functional characteristics, technical abilities, or ease of use. 2. Marketing innovation Introduce of new ways to marketing products like costing, packaging and promotion, can attract buyers interest, and increase industry demand and product differentiation which can lead company to change the competitive positions of rival firms. For example, companies like Dell; they use one-to-one marketing strategy for customers to customize their products based on what they need to satisfy them more. It shows that marketing innovation can sustain business growth without introducing new products. the introduction and implementation of new marketing methods, like costing, packaging and promotion etc.///////Introduce of new ways to market products, can spark a burst of buyer interest, widen industry demand, increase product differentiation, and lower unit costs-any or all of which can alter the competitive positions of rival firms and force strategy revisions. Innovation is very important to sustain business growth and innovation new products should be strong enough to enter into market place 3. Technological change and manufacturing process innovation Development in technology manufacturing process can make industry to produce high quality product at lower cost which can lead to higher industry profitability. As the increase in technological changes, lots of companies automate their manufacturing processes which can leads to increase production and reduce expenses. However, it also has disadvantage such as loss of many factory job so CEO has to consider carefully about implementing this strategy to not to have conflicts between labor forces. Advances in technology can dramatically alter an industrys landscape, making it possible to produce new and better products at lower cost and opening up whole new industry frontiers. 4. Changes in who buys the product and how they use it change in buyer demographics and how consumer use the products can change how customers make purchasing decisions, where customers purchase the product and how customer consider value. And it can cause more competition between other competitors. Shifts in buyer demographics and the ways products are used can alter how customers perceive value, how customers make purchasing decisions, and where customers purchase the product. 4. Increasing globalization Even though globalization has benefits to developing country, it also brings negative effect such as eliminates jobs, lower wages, and exploits workers on standards of living in some country. Therefore some countries are now trying to restrict globalization. Due to globalization, lots of global company like Apple or Samsung tries to manufacture their product in low-wage country to export and import at a very low cost. It can be benefit to developing country. However, it will decrease manufacturing jobs in developed countries. Moreover, because of low-wage in developing country, wages for employee in developed country is underestimated. Even though, the standard cost of living is higher than what they earn. Lastly, there were some serious social issue about Nike that they treated workers in low-wage country very badly, people were working in terrible environment with very low-wage. According to this, global company only thinking about utilize labor force because of low wage without co ntribute toward productivity in developing country. Question 3 b) Some people view the increasing globalization as a threat to many local markets and see it as it makes poor people become poorer and wealthy people become wealthier because profit is unevenly distributed. But Increasing globalization can be beneficial and may develop many countrys economy, politics, culture and environment. It also made the world easy to exchange information all over the world which makes global company to exchange faster or use knowledge efficiently to cope with rapid changes in global market. Because of globalization, global companies like Apple, Samsung or Nike are trying to manufacture their product in low-wage country to export and import at a very low cost. And to do that, they have to build their facilities, training staff and develop good relationship in country which can offer solutions for unemployment and trade problems. It also brings new production methods and management techniques. Moreover it also spreads out new types of technology faster. The company has to adopt new technology to increase their quality of products and sales. Due to globalization, new technology spreads out the world faster which makes company to satisfy their customer expectations efficiently. It is beneficial and may develop many countries economy, politics, culture and environment. And it could also bring happiness to customer by satisfying their needs. But some people view the increasing globalization as a threat to many local markets They see it as it makes poor people become poorer and wealthy people become wealthier. But if people understand globalization in a different way, it might help and develop the economy of many countries. Growth of modern electronic communication, made the world easy to transmit information all over the world Globalization offers solutions for trade problems and unemployment in many countries It also spreads out knowledge, new types of technology and cheaper economic polices It also brings new production methods and management techniques. Products can be exported and imported at a very low cost. It can be perceived either as a problem or an opportunity. Nike has spent the last four years building facilities, training staff, and developing relationships in China Question 4 1) Value Chain Analysis Value Chain Analysis is tools for managers to check that company is utilizing their resources effectively and efficiently to produce benefits for the company or wasting their resources unnecessarily during operations. By analyzing primary activities and support activities of companys operations can figure out their competitive advantage. Moreover, it helps to find ways to give satisfaction to customers. Primary activities for Dell Inbound logistics Dell stores the component for computers until they need for them on production and assembly line. So suppliers are located close to the factory plants to reduce costs. Dell relies mostly on their suppliers and they are using just in time deliveries with their suppliers with good relationship. Also they let suppliers to deliver items like monitors and speakers directly to the customers to reduce inventory costs. Here goods are received from a companys suppliers. They are stored until they are needed on the production/assembly line. Goods are moved around the organization. Dell relies mostly on its highly reliable supplier, where Dell streamlines its operation and relies on its computer monitor supplier to ship directly to the customer. As long as its supplier retains its leadership position, Dell would collaborate with it to achieve mutual success. 1. All those activities concerned with receiving and strong externally sourced materials 2. Just in time ordering 3. Close to suppliers Operations The offer customization option for customers to satisfy exactly what they need and all the goods are manufactured with (build-to-order) system to reduce expenditure on stock and cost. This manufacturing process is their main competitive advantage to grow business. This is where goods are manufactured or assembled. Every Dell system is built to order. Customers get exactly what they want. Dell uses knowledge gained from direct customer contact before and after the sale to provide award-winning reliability and tailored customer service. 1. The manufacture of products and services- the way in which resources inputs are converted to outputs 2. Build-to-order 3. Customizations options Outbound logistics Dell delivers the finished good to their customers directly which can makes them to communicate easily with customers and build good relationship. This direct model gives them benefits such as finding out sales trends and understands what customer need or what customer dont want. When Dell introduced the direct model, its competitors were selling computers to end consumers via distributors. Dell, on the other hand, sells directly to consumers and is continuously communicating with them and benefiting, especially in two areas, seeing sales trends and learning about unmet customer needs. The company also relies on customers knowledge of what they want to purchase and when they want to complete the transaction to drive the direct business model. Dell leverages this source of customer knowledge by making it as easy as possible for a customer to place a customized order electronically. 1. All those activities associated with getting finished goods and services buyers 2. Close to customers 3. The monitor example 4. Room for improvement 5. Evening delivery Marketing and sales Dell offers online-sales or telesales directly with customer and without any retailers. Advantage of direct model is that the company can continuously in contact with its customers which helps them to get an idea of how to innovate their sales and marketing strategy and they also can reduce cost on researching market trends. Dells direct to customer model solve the problem for additional capital for marketing and sales. By selling directly to consumer it eliminated retailers along the way. One advantage of this kind of system is that the firm is continuously in contact with its customers and they are benefiting in two areas concerning sales and marketing, seeing sales trends and learning about unmet costumer demands. 1. Essentially an information activity- informing buyers and customers about products and services 2. China/ credit card/ shop essential 3. What about people who dont computers 4. Improve a lifestyle brand Services Dell provides Dell provides installation services by Dell experts as well as 24/7 online support for large businesses and institutions as well as for small businesses and home PC users. Asset recovery and recycling services in an environmentally friendly manner are offered. PC support services in case of malfunctions and protection services against accidental damage are provided. Dell spent dollars training well-educated business segment managers provide state-of-the art advice to customers. The company also initiated a collaborative customer-solution teams that collaborate with customers to fulfill any unmet customer needs. Because of the nature of work of Dells employees they are continually being inspired to stay abreast of technology threats and opportunities that may alter the competitive landscape in the future. 1. All those activities associated with maintain product performance after the product has been sold 2. Service a poor 3. People dont lick offshore support, usually stressed when they call and this adds to their stress 4. If something goes wrong the pc has to return in the past Supporting activities for Dell Procurement It is on this activity that Dell is weak because Dell do not enjoy protected by trademark or patent or copyright technology. The technology being used in the industry is shared by all industry players. 1. Sourcing and negotiating with materials suppliers 2. Lowering the bargaining power of Intel and Microsoft Human resource management Dells mission statement is to be the most successful computer company in the world at delivering the best customer experience in markets we serve. Dell employees, direct salespeople, help-desk operators, engineers, and the like all have to be knowledgeable and customer focused to ensure Dells continued competitiveness. 1. Those activities concerned with recruiting, developing, motivating and rewarding the work force of a business 2. Potential for spinning it off as a separate business unit 3. Hosted payroll Technology development Technology is an important source of competitive advantage. And here is one strength of Dell for the firm enjoys better access to technology. Dell introduces the latest relevant technology much more quickly than companies with slow-moving indirect distribution channels. 1. Activities concerned with managing information processing and the development and protection of knowledge in a business 2. Lagging behind in technology research and development Infrastructure Dell revolutionized the traditional value chain of computer manufacturing industry by introducing the direct to customer model. Dell also employed a global business consultancy, to help it develop a set of metrics to judge business-unit performance. By doing so, daily decision making were more efficient. The chief financial objective that steered managerial evaluation at Dell was return on invested capital (ROIC). Which leads to no inventory build-up, Dell turns over inventory every six days on average, keeping related costs low. 1. Concerned with a wide range of support systems and functions such as finance, planning, quality control and general senior management 2. Reacting to problems by change in senior management Operation to meet adding value, improve quality, add efficiency and increase profit Receiving and distributing raw material Converting raw material into a finished product Identifying customers and distributing the product Supplier relationship process Sharing data with suppliers Investment Privileged suppliers Long time relationship with suppliers Sending latest news about new products or services by email to build good relationship with customers. . Question 4 2) Benchmarking †¢ In todays competitive marketplace, all firms are seeking ways to improve their overall performance. One such method of improvement, recently adopted by many firms, is benchmarking. Benchmarking is a technique used to evaluate internal business processes. In this analysis, managers determine the firms critical processes and outputs, baseline those processes, then compare the performance of each process against a standard within the industry. Dell offers similar products, serves different customers, and use different strategies to achieve their goals. Dell can learn from the competition. The most effective way to learn about the industry is by benchmarking world-best practices. This practice has been successful for Dell in the past and should be a continuing evolution of benchmarking annually.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Guantanamo Bay Essay

The United States of America prides itself as being one of the most powerful democracies around the world and The U. S. ’s continued use of Guantanamo Bay, a corrupt institution, as an interrogation facility provides a great example of their ignorance toward basic human rights, their unwillingness to release possibly innocent immigrants back to their countries and lastly disregarding the option of altering interrogation methods or the closing of such an institution. The U. S. being one of the world’s superpowers also infringes upon human rights by funding and supporting Guantanamo Bay. Guantanamo Bay demonstrates the U. S. ’s willingness to gain military intelligence at the cost of possible innocent people’s sanity and at times their lives. Residents at Guantanamo Bay are often held without being told about what they are being held for, their right to habeas corpus is withdrawn from them. Also, on average only one in every one hundred and seventy two detainees at Guantanamo Bay has been given a trial. In addition, the Pentagon has been reluctant to allow aid agencies like the Red Cross to visit the detainees and inspect their living conditions. The torture at Guantanamo Bay is so severe that it caused three residents (Mani al-Utaybi, age 30; Yasser al-Zahrani, age 20; and Ali Abdullah Ahmed, age 37) to commit suicide . However, there is controversy as to whether these three men killed themselves or were strangled by Guantanamo Bay guards or interrogators and strung up to make their death appear like a suicide. During year 2002 Canada became directly involved with Guantanamo Bay. A fifteen year old kid who was alleged to have thrown a grenade killing an American soldier was brought to Guantanamo Bay and was detained there until last year. Omar Khadr was held at Guantanamo Bay and during 2008 he applied to the federal court for judicial review of the governments decision to not seek his repatriation. He claimed that his s. 7 and rights were infringed. â€Å"Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice. † The court found Khadr’s s. 7 rights breached as a result of the â€Å"frequent flyer program†. Khadr was not given any immediate counsel at the time of his arrest, breaching s. 0(b) of The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. â€Å"Everyone has the right on arrest or detention to retain and instruct counsel without delay and to be informed of that right. † Like many other detainees at Guantanamo Bay Khadr’s right to habeas corpus was infringed, which is s. 10(c) of the charter. â€Å"Everyone has the right on arrest or detention to have the validity of the detention determined by way of habeas corpus and to be released if the detention is not lawful. † Lastly, Khadr was brought to Guantanamo Bay during year 2002 and was not tried for murder until year 2007, which breaches his s. 1(b) rights. â€Å"Any persons charged with an offence has the right to be tried within a reasonable time. † The most terrible thing about both Guantanamo Bay’s disregard for human rights and treatment of foreigners is the strong aversion The United States has towards the reconstruction and the development of new methods of operation for Guantanamo Bay. Gathering military intelligence is a high priority but that priority should never be at the cost of a possible innocent person’s well being. Therefore, the idea of closing an institution like Guantanamo Bay should not seem extrinsic. However, interrogation facilities are needed in order for the U. S. to stay vigilant with anti-terrorism, but there should be a need to modify Guantanamo Bay’s practices so that detainees can keep their rights. Torin Nelson, a former Guantanamo Bay employee interviewed in the documentary â€Å"Gitmo – a documentary on Guantanamo Bay† spoke regarding Guantanamo Bay’s current interrogation tactics. â€Å"In my humble opinion they’re completely ineffective and detrimental to the overall mission†¦ I guarantee you I could get one person to give more information (compared to trying to get information from ten detainees using current methods) if I was to convince that one person that we’re the good guys and we’re their friends. † In summation, Guantanamo Bay is a corrupt institution because it ignores fundamental human rights by cruelly treating residents, it withholds possible innocent detainees like Omar Khadr and The U. S. is not showing any sign of changing Guantanamo Bay’s methods even though it might prove a more efficient way of gathering military intelligence.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Emotional Physical and Mental Benefit of Horseback Riding

†¢ Overall sense of wellbeing: Horseback riding is a great combination of cardiovascular and muscle-strengthening exercise. As we have discussed in previous articles, regular exercise imparts various psychological benefits. †¢ Increased self-confidence: The idea of being able to control an animal much larger than ourselves improves our self-confidence. Adding a new skill to our repertoire also increases our sense of self worth. †¢ Decreased stress: When you engage in horseback riding, you need to focus on the nuances of the entire ritual and process.This helps take your mind off mundane worries, which in turn relieves stress. †¢ Improved focus: For me, the most eye-opening aspects of horseback riding are the subtle details that are involved in every step of the process, from preparing the horse for the ride all the way to dismounting the horse. All of this not only requires significant focus but also helps cultivate better focus. †¢ Improved self-discipline: The art of horse care and horseback riding is a great example of inter-species communication. Every nuance of our behavior affects the horse’s behavior.Therefore, in order to be a good rider, you must cultivate the self-discipline to modulate your own behavior e. g. : smooth breathing, overall calmness, etc. †¢ Improved patience: Horseback riding requires learning a whole new set of skills which takes time. And getting to understand the psychology of horses is a process too. So, by riding horses regularly, we can learn to be more patient which is a desirable quality. †¢ A sense of freedom and elation: I can tell you from my own experience that being able to ride a horse, a much bigger and powerful creature, gives me a sense of elation and freedom.I know of many people who have had the same experience. †¢ A sense of teamwork, responsibility and social networking: Working with a group of people (e. g. : trainers, fellow riders, etc. ) towards the same goal teache s us the value of teamwork and responsibility. This is especially important for children. Additionally, children enjoy the opportunity to develop a healthier social network which is less likely to lead them to troubles. †¢ Development of respect for animals: I believe every human should show respect for our fellow animals.Horseback riding definitely makes us aware of the amazing abilities and sensibilities of horses thus creating a renewed respect for animals. †¢ Improved risk-taking abilities: Since riding is clearly a risk sport, the process of becoming an accomplished rider teaches us how to manage potential risks judiciously. †¢ Therapeutic riding: Horseback riding has been used since the 50? s, with much success, in helping physically disabled people to improve their physical and emotional health. This is described as therapeutic riding. Emotionally disabled people are also known to benefit from therapeutic riding.For example, autistic children are known to focus better and even utter their first spoken words while on the back of a horse. †¢ Safety comes first: Please be careful in choosing a training farm and/or a trainer. Attention to the safety of people and animals is paramount; and wearing a helmet is a must. (http://medinagazette. northcoastnow. com/2010/07/21/the-psychology-of-horseback-riding/) Psychological Benefits * General sense of well-being. Exercise in the fresh air of a ranch, away from hospitals, doctors office, therapy rooms, or home help to promote a sense of well-being. Improved self-confidence Confidence is gained by mastering a skill normally performed by able-bodied people. The ability to control an animal much larger and stronger than oneself is a great confidence builder. Participating in events such as shows and play days add to the sense of achievement. * Increased interest in the outside world. For those confined by a disability, the world tends to shrink in size. Riding increases interest in what is happeni ng around the rider, as the rider explores the world from the back of a horse. Even exercising becomes interesting when done on horseback. Increased interest in one's own life. The excitement of riding and the experiences involved stimulate the rider, encouraging the rider to speak and communicate about it. * Improved risk-taking abilities. Riding is a risk sport. The rider learns to master fears though the act of staying on the horse, as well as attempting new skills and positions on the horse. * Development of patience. Since the horse has a mind of it's own, the rider learns patience as he or she attempts to perform skills on the horse when the horse is not cooperating.Repetition of basic riding principles also helps to develop patience. * Emotional control and self-discipline. The rider quickly learns that an out-of-control rider means an out-of-control horse. Shouting, crying, and emotional outbursts upset the horse, which in turn frightens the rider. Riders learn to control th ese emotions and appropriately express them. * Sense of normality. By being able to master a skill considered difficult by the able population, the rider experiences him/herself as being normal. * Expansion of the locus of control.The rider begins to view him/herself as having control over his/her world as control over a powerful animal increases. (http://www. strides. org/psycho. html) * Friendship. Although riding can be a solitary activity, it is normally performed in groups. Riders share a common love of horses and a common experience of riding — a good foundation on which to build a friendship. * Development of respect and love for animals. Horses require a great deal of care and attention. Riders find themselves bonding with the animals. They develop an interest in them and learn to care for them.They learn to put the needs of the horse first. * Increased experiences. The variety of experiences involved in riding are endless. From tacking and grooming to trail riding, f rom going to horse shows to learning the parts of a horse, the rider is constantly experiencing and growing. The horse also provides the rider with the ability to go places otherwise inaccessible due to the disability. * Enjoyment. There is no doubt about it, riding a horse is fun. Riders experience excitement and pleasure every time they come for a lesson. (http://www. strides. org/social. html) Physical Benefits * Improved balance.As the horse moves, the rider is constantly thrown off-balance, requiring that the rider's muscles contract and relax in an attempt to rebalance. This exercise reaches deep muscles not accessible in conventional physical therapy. The three-dimensional rhythmical movement of the horse is similar to the motion of walking, teaching rhythmical patterns to the muscles of the legs and trunk. By placing the rider in different positions on the horse (therapeutic vaulting), we can work different sets of muscles. Stopping and starting the horse, changing speed and changing direction increase the benefits. Strengthened muscles. Muscles are strengthened by the increased use involved in riding. Even though riding is exercise, it is perceived as enjoyment, and therefore the rider has increased tolerance and motivation to lengthen the period of exercise. * Improved coordination, faster reflexes, and better motor planning. Riding a horse requires a great deal of coordination in order to get the desired response from the horse. Since the horse provides instant feedback to every action by the rider, it is easy to know when you have given the correct cue.Repetition of patterned movements required in controlling a horse quickens the reflexes and aids in motor planning. * Stretching of tight or spastic muscles. Sitting on a horse requires stretching of the adductor muscles of the thighs. This is accomplished by pre-stretching prior to mounting the horse, and starting the rider off on a narrow horse, gradually working to wider and wider horses. Gravity helps to stretch the muscles in front of the leg as the rider sits on the horse without stirrups. Riding with stirrups with heels level or down helps to stretch the heel cords and calf muscles.Stomach and back muscles are stretched as the rider is encouraged to maintain an upright posture against the movement of the horse. Arm and hand muscles are stretched as part of routine exercises on the horse and by the act of holding and using the reins. * Decreased spasticity. Spasticity is reduced by the rhythmic motion of the horse. The warmth of the horse may aid in relaxation, especially of the legs. Sitting astride a horse helps to break up extensor spasms of the lower limbs. Holding the reins helps to break flexor spasm patterns of the upper limbs.Many of the developmental vaulting positions are also designed to break up or reduce spasticity. Fatigue also helps to decrease spasticity by producing relaxation. * Increased range of motion of the joints. As spasticity is reduced, range of motion increases. Range of motion is also improved by the act of mounting and dismounting, tacking up, grooming, and exercises during lessons. * Reduction of abnormal movement patterns. If spasticity is reduced and range of motion increased, it follows that abnormal movements will be inhibited.Relaxation techniques while riding also help to inhibit abnormal movement. * Improved respiration and circulation. Although riding is not normally considered a cardiovascular exercise, trotting and cantering do increase both respiration and circulation. * Improved appetite and digestion. Like all forms of exercise, riding stimulates the appetite. The digestive tract is also stimulated, increasing the efficiency of digestion. * Sensory integration. Riding stimulates the tactile senses both through touch and environmental stimuli.The vestibular system is also stimulated by the movement of the horse, changes in direction and speed. The olfactory system responds to the many smells involved in a st able and ranch environment. Vision is used in control of the horse. The many sounds of a ranch help to involve the auditory system. All of these senses work together and are integrated in the act of riding. In addition, proprioceptors ( receptors that give information from our muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints) are activated, resulting in improved proprioception. (http://www. strides. org/physical. html)